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THE XVIII CENTURY

CUSCO


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SPANISH VERSION
CUSCO PERU


THE XVIII CENTURY


In spite of the fact that it was not the capital of the Inca Empire anymore, Cusco continued being considered as the center of the Andes. And it was just there, in the Sacred Valley of the Incas, where the greatest rebellion against the Spanish power started towards the end of the XVIII. This movement headed by Túpac Amaru was so strong that the Crown was obliged to readjust its policies and to consider the chance of losing its American lands at any moment.

The Great Rebellion
Any rebellion in the American colonies was as threatening for the stability of the Crown's lands as that of Peru. Despite that in some way it dealt about an announced fact, it took by surprise the colonial authorities and that negligence helped the movement reached such dimensions.
 
 
Historical Information Introduction
History of Cusco
Tahuantinsuyo
  - Incan Society
  - Background:
      * The Conquest
      * The Rebellion
        of Manco Inca

      * The XVIII
        Century
Incan Architecture
      * Stone
      * Adobe
Planification
Inca City Description
The Incan Center
José Gabriel Condorcanqui, the movement leader, was the chief ("cacique") of Pampamarca, Surimana and Tungasuca and a thriving trader. The Bourbon reforms directly affected his interests and those of the southern caciques. Having the support of many people of mixed race and the Creoles, José Gabriel Condorcanqui rose up. An important fact that legitimated his actions among the indigenous population was to be descended from the Incas. For that reason, he took the name of Túpac Amaru II, reinstating the Vilcabamba's dynasty.

On November 1780, Túpac Amaru ordered to apprehend the Tinta's mayor - a symbol of the Spanish abuses - and ordered to hang him in the Tungasuca Square. That month the rebelled troops got together, they won in Sangarará and took Lampa and Azángaro, apart from other small cities. The rebelled current quickly spread towards Moquegua, Arequipa, Tacna and Arica and comprised almost all the southern Andes, which supplied Potosí with "mitayos". Precisely, one of the strongest claims of Túpac Amaru was the "mita" (forced labor) abolition. Four months after the events in Tinta, and after numerous victories, the rebels could besiege La Paz, but at the same time, Túpac Amaru was arrested in Tinta and was killed soon.

Then it happened one of the cruelest events of the Peruvian history: the rebel leader was publicly executed and in order to teach a lesson, he was subject to terrible tortures in the Cusco square. His limbs were tied to four horses that received the order to move to tear to pieces the rebel's body. As they failed in such an attempt, José Gabriel Condorcanqui was decapitated. But, before dying he had to see his wife's torture, Micaela Bastidas, who died as well as their sons.



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