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A moving feeling always overcomes the visitor when arriving at Cusco. This is due not only to its wonderful landscape, which combines an incredibly blue sky with very white clouds and imposing hills, but, above all, due to its history. Across its complex narrow streets or at its Main Square it is impossible to listen to everything this city wants to tell us. Very few places in Peru have had such an intense life. This was the sacred capital of the Incas, "el Dorado" of the conquerors, the center of the South American baroque and scenario of the Great Rebellion. For this reason, this is the cherished treasure of Peru.
 
 
Historical Information Introduction
History of Cusco
Tahuantinsuyo
  - Incan Society
  - Background:
      * The Conquest
      * The Rebellion
        of Manco Inca

      * The XVIII
        Century
Incan Architecture
      * Stone
      * Adobe
Planification
Inca City Description
The Incan Center
Pre-Inca Period
Almost all the inca and pre-inca settlements are located between 3,000 and 3,200 m.a.s.l. Unlike most of the archaeological sites that belonged to the Formative Period (1500 B.C.- 0), the Cusco valley does not register influences from the northern culture Chavín.

Among the oldest places in Cusco you can find Marcavalle (1000 B.C. to 700 B.C.). Chanapata, a culture that goes back to 700 B.C, succeeded Marcavalle. The Chanapata culture extended around the entire Cusco valley and their settlers reached a higher degree of civilization, as they developed the agriculture and the domestic animals raising.


Huari Population
Towards the year 750 AC, the Huari population appeared in the valley bringing with them the high culture. In the complex design of its urban centers you can see the existence of a society with hierarchies, an established religion, planning, exchange networks and the control of a great population that may be mobilized to perform very important works.

The Huari population members are known as the great town planners in the old Peru. One of the best examples of the Huari influence in the Cusco Valley is Piquillacta, which in Quechua language means "flea-ridden city". As many archaeologists state, the importance of Piquillacta, besides the perfect trace and organization system lies, above all, in that it was taken as an urban pattern by the Incas.


The Tahuantinsuyo Creation
Few places in Peru have a magical aura similar to that of the Incaic Cusco. Even today, when passing by its streets and watching those stones mysteriously joined, we feel the need to keep a respectful attitude. It is impossible not to perceive the sacred nature of this city in the Incas' times.

According to the legends and chronicles, there were 13 Incas: Manco Cápac, Sinchi Roca, Lloque Yupanqui, Mayta Cápac, Cápac Yupanqui, Inca Roca, Yáhuar Huaca, Huiracocha, Pachacútec, Túpac Yupanqui, Huayna Cápac, Huáscar and Atahualpa.

They appeared dominating the Valley towards the year 1200 AC and made up the Tahuantinsuyo in less than a century. The Spaniards described the Incas as "the sons of the Sun". For the Tahuantinsuyo inhabitants, it deals about divine beings that had the ability to idolize everything around them.

It is hard to imagine that the Incas have achieved to organize the Tahuantinsuyo in less than a century. According to the chronicles, the great organizer of the Inca Empire was Pachacútec, who decided to expand its territories beating the Chancas.

Some people doubt about the existence of this town and support the idea that the Chancas may symbolize bordering ethnic groups. The fact is that the conquests started from year 1430 AC and the Tahuantinsuyo expanded to the north until Pasto in Colombia and to the south until the Maule River in Chile and Tucumán, to the north of Argentina, at present.



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