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TAHUANTINSUYO


The greatest and oldest empire, developed in the American continent and that had the city of Cusco as its headquarters, goes back to the year 1200 A.C. The word Tawantinsuyo comes from a name composed by two Quechua terms: Tawa, which means four; and Suyo, which means State.

The territory area of the Empire was enormous, it occupied over 3'000,000 Km2 and it also encompassed 5000 km (3,107 miles) of coast over the Pacific Ocean, which currently represents the double of the Peruvian area.

The name of the city itself indicates us the territory division, which was based on duality, tripartition, and four-partition relations, typical from the Inca mentality. The four "suyos" or nations used Cusco as a geographic and political center.
 
 
Historical Information Introduction
History of Cusco
Tahuantinsuyo
  - Incan Society
  - Background:
      * The Conquest
      * The Rebellion
        of Manco Inca

      * The XVIII
        Century
Incan Architecture
      * Stone
      * Adobe
Planification
Inca City Description
The Incan Center
These nations were distributed in the following way: to the northwest by the Chinchaysuyo, which goes up to the Ancashmayo River in Pasto (Colombia); to the northeast we could find the Antisuyo in the subtropical valleys, occupying part of the Low Amazon Jungle; to the southwest, the Contisuyo occupied part of the Peruvian coast up to the Maule River (Chile); and to the southeast, we could find the Collasuyo that, nowadays, occupies most of the Bolivian territory up to Tucuman (Argentina).

All the lands belonged to the Sun, the Inca and the State, and these were distributed in such a way that each inhabitant received one parcel of fertile ground to be worked. Men received one topu or tupu (2700 m2; 0.27 Ha, 0.67 acres) when they were born, whereas women received half a topo. They were not allowed to sell them nor to inherit them, since the State, and not them, was the only owner. Therefore, every time a person passed away their lands were destined to a new inhabitant.




INCAN SOCIETY

TAHUANTINSUYO


The Incan society was characterized by well-defined hierarchies that positioned the absolutist power of the Inca at the top; followed by the nobility also known as orejones, a title that was assigned to them by the Spaniards due to their lobe deformation, which resulted from bearing heavy ornaments that distinguished them from the others.

Next in the social scale of the Empire we could find the runas or mitimaes, who were considered as vulgar people. They constituted most of the Empire population and they carried out the mandatory tasks at mitas. Finally, there were the Yanaconas or Yanakunas, who were the house servants.

We know that the Inca town was strictly a conqueror. As a result from said conquests they gathered a great number of towns that had their own rites and traditions. Therefore, they used several mechanisms to conciliate the cultural disparity: the Runa Simi or Quechua, was the official language set along the territory so as to counteract this problem. Besides, they established an organization based on moral principles of obedience and permanent persecution of crimes. Nowadays, those principles are known as the basic Tawantinsuyo laws: Ama Sua (do not be a thief), Ama Llulla (do not be a liar), and Ama Kella (do not be lazy).

No one can deny the amazing Inca organization, not only because of the huge territory management but also due to the success of the paternal behavior of the Incan nobility. Despite having a monarchical Government, that had a negative background in Europe and the rest of the world, the empire population did not go hungry nor suffered any deprivations.

Currently, this social balance is analyzed from several theory scopes: a slavery system based on the nobility study, and a social-imperialist system studied taking the runas as a basis. Josť Tamayo, a modern researcher, included the Incan organization within the "Theory of Reciprocity and Redistribution, and the vertical authority of ecologic phases in the Southern Mountain Regions and Coast of Peru".

Due to the aforementioned, the Tawantinsuyo deserves a special title among societies with a greater development, which considers both its productive and artistic activities and its social and political planning.



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