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THE HISTORY OF CUSCO


Cusco is supported by more than 3000 years of age to be considered as The Oldest Existing City of America. Cusco, and its cultural and geographical diversity, has suffered and enjoyed different events through the years that have turned it into a historical study center and the most important tourist core of the country.

There are different opinions with regard to the first inhabitants of the city. Some persons state that the Marcavalle town or the Sawasiras, Antasayas and Wallas tribes initially inhabited the valley. Others base their theories on the Inca mythology, according to which Manko Qhapaq and Pachakuteq founded the city. None of this theories has been proved, but there is a great amount of pre-ceramic samples that support the antiquity title assigned to the city.
 
 
Historical Information Introduction
History of Cusco
Tahuantinsuyo
  - Incan Society
  - Background:
      * The Conquest
      * The Rebellion
        of Manco Inca

      * The XVIII
        Century
Incan Architecture
      * Stone
      * Adobe
Planification
Inca City Description
The Incan Center
These pre-ceramics correspond to the Men of Yauri and Chumbivilcas, with an approximate age of 5 thousand years B.C., to the shepherds of Canas in Chawaytiri and to the Men of Qorqa, engaged in farming.

During the Formative period, the city started to be inhabited as of the Watanay Valley or Cusco Valley. During the sedentary period, 1000 years B.C., Marcavalle was the selected place for the establishment. This city was located at the eastern side of the city, and it had a population made up by farmers and shepherds who were precariously organized.

On 800 B.C., the Chapanata culture was developed, and on 600 A.C. the Qotakalli culture was created. This culture was the first region of the established system of Regional States. Afterwards, as a consequence of the Wari invasion, the Killki regional state was created on 800 A.C., and the Lucro state towards 1000 A.C.

The beginning of the Inca civilization took place on 1200 A.C. and its expansive phase occurred during 1400 A.C.

The subsequent part of the history is known. On November 15th 1533, the Spaniards arrived together with the Empire fall and a rough cultural irruption that moved the capital to Lima.

However, the fighting spirits did not travel to the new capital; on the contrary, they stayed in Cusco. One of the main events was the raise of Mako Inka, which lasted from 1536 to 1572, year when the last member of the Inca dynasty, Tupac Amaru I, was defeated and executed.

Nevertheless, we cannot forget the biggest precursor of the Peruvian independence, Tupac Amaru II or JosÚ Gabriel Tupac Amaru Inga, who in 1780, started a new rebellion that, indubitably, set the most significant precedent against the Spanish Regime in America. Unfortunately, a betrayal caused his defeat and execution together with his family in the Main Square of the same city that witnessed his birth.

Said precedent did not go unnoticed, and was followed by Mateo Pumacahua, and the Angulo Brothers, who initiated another rebellion between 1814 and 1815.

Finally, in 1821, as a result of the infinite fights and the integral Southamerican support, Peru obtained its independency from Spain. And by 1933, Cusco was declared the "Archaeological Capital of South America" during the Americanists Congress carried out in Argentina.

But, not only did the rebellions shake the city, but also the nature power with a 7░-earthquake in 1950 that only left the fourth part of its original buildings standing.

However, due to its great cultural and historical significance, Cusco received innumerable demonstrations of worldwide acknowledgement, as that from 1978 during the 7th Convention of Majors from Great Worldwide Cities, carried out in Milan, Italy, where Cusco was declared as the "Cultural Heritage of the World". In 1983, UNESCO granted it the title of "Cultural Heritage of the Humanity".

Peru did not stay behind and, on December 22nd 1983, it acknowledged the portent of its Andean internal areas through a law that declared the city of Cusco as the "Tourist Capital of Peru" and "Cultural Heritage of the Nation".



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